1. Fill in the blanks:-
    a. Any crime committed using computers and the Internet is called
    Ans. Cyber Crime
    b.A___________is a person who gains unauthorised access to a computer system for the purpose of stealing and corrupting data.
    Ans. Cracker
    c.A___________attaches itself to an executable file and infects the computer when it is run.
    Ans. Virus
    d.________are programs that run independently and travel from one computer to another across the network.
    Ans. Worm
    e.__________is a software designed to prevent, scan, and remove computer viruses.
    Ans. Antivirus
    f.The digital code attached to a message that uniquely identifies a message is called__________
    Ans. Certificate authority
    g.Regular___________saves your data from natural disasters.
    Ans. Data back
    2. Write T for the true statement and F for the false one.
    a. Always scan storage devices before connecting it to your computer.
    Ans. F
    b.Spam is an unsolicited mail sent in the link.
    Ans. T
    c.You can keep a password same as your own name so that It can be easlly remembered.
    Ans. T
    d.In SSL connection, a key icon appears in the address bar of the browser.
    Ans. F
    e.A hacker is a person who gains unauthorized access to a computer system for the purpose of stealing and corrupting data.
    Ans. F
    f.Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and spyware.
    Ans. T
    g.You should avoid using pirated software in your computer.
    Ans. T
    h.Spyware is a computer program that is installed on a user’s computer with
    his consent.
    Ans. F
    3. Choose the correct option :
    a.A category of software that spies on your computer activities is called
    (i) spyware
    (ii) freeware
    (iii) software
    (iv) hardware
    Ans. (1) spyware
    b.Which one of the following is not malware?
    (i) virus
    (Ii) worm
    (iii) Trajan horse
  2. Ans. (iv) antivirus
    c.Which one of the following does not cause the spread of a computer virus?
    (iv) antivirus
    (i) down loading files
    (iii) e-rnail attachment
    (ii) working with pen drives
    (iv) typing through keyboard
    Ans. (iv) typing through keyboard
    d.SSL means
    (i) Switch Sockets Layer
    (ii) Secure Sockets Layer
    (iii) Systematic Sockets Layer
    (iv) System Sockets Layer
    Ans. (ii) Secure Sockets Layer
    e.A digital certificate should contain
    (i) serial number
    (iii) digital signature
    (ii) validity period
    (iv) all of these
    Ans. (iii) digital signature
    f.The information security system in e-commerce should meet requirements such as
    (i) privacy
    (ii) authentication of sender and recipient
    (iii) integrity and non-repudiation
    (iv) all of these
    Ans. (iv) all of these
    g.It is a program that appears useful at first sight but is actually programmed to pass the user’s data or access rights to someone else.
    (i) Virus
    (ii) Worm
    (iii) Trojan horse
    (iv) Spyware
    Ans. (iii) Trojan horse
    h.You can take a backup of 100 GB in a/an
    (i) CD or DVD
    (ii) pen drive
    (iii) external hard ‘disk
    (iv) all of these
    Ans. (iii) external hard ‘disk

4.Short answer questions :

a. What is the difference between a virus and a worm?
Ans. The difference between a virus and a worm is that a computer virus is a program that attaches itself to other programs in order to alter their behavior, often in a harmful way.
In other hand, a computer worm is a program capable of reproducing and spreading itself to another computer system, usually by means of a computer network.

b.Write two advantages of online backup.
Ans. Two advantages of online backup :
a. Data can be restored to any computer online (connected to the Internet).
b.Data is stored safely at some other place, i.e., far away from the original data.

c.What is the difference between hackers and crackers?
Ans. Difference between hackers and crackers is that Hacker is the term used for a computer enthusiast, i.e., a person who enjoys learning programming languages and computer systems, and can often be considered as an expert on the subject.
On the other hand, Cracker is the term used to refer to an individual who gains unauthorized access to a computer system for the purpose of stealing and corrupting the data.

d.What is a digital certificate?
Ans. A digital certificate is a kind of digital code or credential that authenticates the identity of the server. It is signed by an independent, recognized, and mutually trusted third party to ensure its validity. The signer of the digital certificate is known as the Certificate Authority (CA).

e.How is a web address starting with https:// different from the one starting with http://?
Ans. Web address starting with https//is different from the one starting with http://. Extra s is present in https and that makes it secure and https is a combination of two different protocols HTTPS and SSL protocols. In short,

HTTP = Unsecured information exchange protocol

HTTPS= Secured information exchange protocol

f. Mention any two uses of ICT in hospitals.
Ans. Two uses of ICT in hospitals are given below:
a.Tests such as CT-Scan, MRI, ultrasound, etc., thereby helping doctors diagnose diseases.
b.Continuous monitoring of patients through computerized sensors for pulse rate, temperature, breathing rate, blood oxygen, and blood pressure.

g.What is meant by digital divide?
Ans. Digital divide means to the gap between people who have knowledge as well as access to products of modern information technology, such as mobile phones, computers, and the Internet, and those who do not have access and/or the knowledge to use these devices and technologies.

h.Define ICT. What impact does ICT have on society?
Ans. ICT ( Information Communication Technology ) is a broad term used to signify the integration of information technology tools with broadcasting technologies, audio and video processing equipment, and telecommunication equipment.
The three terms in ICT mean the following :
Information: It refers to the meaning extracted from the data provided.
Communication: It refers to how the information is verified, distributed, and kept secure.
Technology: It refers to the formats and tools used to gather, store, and communicate information.

ICT (Information and communication technology) has created a huge impacts on human society, which are described below:
Knowledge-Based Society:- A knowledge-based society refers to the type of society that lays maximum emphasis on knowledge. It refers to societies that are well educated.
Infomania:- It is the compulsive desire to check or accumulate news and information via phone or computer. This symptom is also referred to as not giving importance to anybody because of being completely involved in their E-mail or phone.
Digital Unity:- Nowadays, information and knowledge has become an important driving force in society as compared to land, capital or labour.
Digital Divide:- It is an economic and social inequality according to categories of persons in a given population, in their access to use or knowledge of information and communication technologies.

5.Long answer questions :

a. What is the use of antivirus software? Write any two points.
Ans. i. Antivirus software is a program designed to detect and remove malicious programs, i.e., viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.

ii. Using antivirus software we can restore corrupted data. Several antivirus software can identify and eliminate the specific bits of our data affected by malware without damaging our original data.

b.What is spam? How can you avoid getting spam mail? Write any two points.
Ans. Spam refers to any unsolicited and unwanted e-mail. It may carry advertisements or serve as a means of spreading malware such as viruses and worms.

Some of the ways of avoiding spam mail are given below:
a. We should not give our e-mail address to unknown people or enter the same at unreliable websites.
b.Use the spam filter of our e-mail program to block unwanted e-mails.

c. we should delete spam mails without reading them.

c.Why do we require a password? What are the rules to create a secure
password?
Ans. We require a password to protect files and data.
Rules to create a secure password :
i. Password should be at least 8-10 characters in length. This is because a large number of characters will make it difficult for an attacker to crack the password.
ii. A password should contain at least one character from each of the following groups for it to be a strong one:
i.Lowercase alphabet letters
ii. Uppercase alphabets letter
iii. Numbers
iv.Special characters

d.What is cybercrime? Briefly describe any two types of cybercrimes.
Ans:- Computer crime or cybercrime refers to any crime that involves a computer and the Internet. Some examples of cyber crimes are hacking, cracking, sending obscene or offensive messages, harassment through e-mails and Web messages, creating and distributing spam mails, etc.
Hacker is the term used for a computer enthusiast, i.e., a person who enjoys learning programming languages and computer systems, and can often be considered as an expert on the subject.
Cracker is the term used to refer to an individual who gains unauthorized access to a computer system for the purpose of stealing and corrupting the data.

e. What is the difference between encryption and decryption?
Ans. Difference between encryption and decryption are:

Decryption
a. It is the process of converting data into a code so that unauthorized users cannot read it.
b. It is the method of sending data in the form of secret codes that is not understandable and enables the security of the data.

Encryption
a. It is the process of converting encrypted data into a human-readable format.
b. It is the method of receiving the coded data and converting it again into its original, useful form.

f.”Use of e-governance has social and economic impacts”. Justify.
Ans. E-governance has a very good impact on economic and social life. It contributes:
a. Delivering government services efficiently.
b. Integrating various standalone systems and services between the government and the citizens.
c.Making government service available to citizens in a convenient, efficient,and transparent manner.

g.What steps can be taken by us to bridge the digital divide?
Ans:- Steps can be taken by us to bridge the digital gap are:
a. If we have an old computer, provide it to someone who cannot buy one.
b.If we can help someone learn about computers, assist them through demonstrations and by taking computer classes at regular intervals.

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