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Chapter – 1. Partition of Bengal and Swadeshi Movement
Mark :- 1
Very Short Type Questions
1. Choose the correct answer:
(i) During whose tenure was the ‘Partition Plan of Bengal’ executed? [HSLC 14]
(a) Lord Curzon
(b) Lord William Bentinck
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord Mountbatten
Ans :- (a) Lord Curzon
(ii) Which British administrator helped in the formation of Muslim League in 1906? [HSLC 15]
(a) Lord Curzon
(b) Lord Minto
(c) Lord Ripon
(d) Lord Cornwallis
Ans :- (c) Lord Ripon
(iii) The British Government annulled the partition of the plan of Bengal by holding a Garbar at Delhi? [HSLC 16]
(a) 20 July, 1905
(b) 2 December, 1911
(c) 13 December, 1908
(d) 15 August, 1906
Ans :- (b) 2 December, 1911
(iv) During whose tenure was the Partition Plan of Bengal’ executed?
(a) Lord Curzon
(b) Lord William Bentinek
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord Mountbatten
Ans :- (a) Lord Curzon
(v) The ‘Bengal Chemical’ was established by
(a) Rabindranath Tagore
(b) Arabinda Ghosh
(c) Surendranath Banerjee
(d) Acharya Prafulla Chandra Roy
Ans :- (d) Acharya Prafulla Chandra Roy
2. Who composed the song “Bande Mataram”? [HSLC ’11, 14]
Ans :-BANKIM CHANDRA CHATTOPADHYAY
3. Who were Lal-Bal-Pal’? [HSLC ’12]
Ans :-Lala Lajpat Ray, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Paul.
4. Who was Lord Minto? [HSLC ’13]
Ans :-Lord MInto was the viceroy of India after Lord Curzon.
5. Name a historic event that occured during the reign of Lord Curzon.
Ans :-Partition of Bengal.
6. When was the Sepoy Mutiny taken place?
7. Which is the second most political upheaval in India after the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857?
Ans :-The partition of Bengal is the second most political upheaval in India after the Sepoy Munity in 1857.
8. When did the national movement become very strong in the Bengal province?
Ans :-In the last part of the 19th century and in the eve of the 20th century the national movement become very strong in the Bengal province.
9. Who created a new province by adjoining East Bengal and Assam?
Ans :- Lord Curzon.
10. When did the British Government introduce the Regulating Act?
Ans :-In 1773.
11. To what position, did the British Government upgrade the post of the Governor of Bengal Presidency?
Ans :-To the level of Governor General.
12. What was brought under the control of the Governor of Fort William by Regulating Act of 1773?
Ans :-The governor of Bombay and Madras were brought under the control.
13. When was the Allahabad Treaty signed?
Ans :-In 1765 A.D.
14. When were the signatories of the Allahabad Treaty?
Ans :-The signatories of Allahabad treaty were the Mughal emperor Shah Alam and Robert Clive.
15. When did the British take steps to reform the Indian administration?
Ans :-After the Sepoy Munity in 1857.
16. What was also included in the reformation of the Indian administration by the British?
Ans :-The Partition of Bengal.
17. What was the area of Assam when created on 7th February 1874?
Ans :-54,000 sq mile.
18. What was the population of Assam when created on 7th, 1874?
19. Name the post that was created for the state of Assam by the British?
Ans :-The post of Chief Commissioner.
20. Who was the first chief commissioner of Assam?
Ans:- R.H.Keatings was the first commissioner of Assam.
21. From whose tenure, was the British colonialism established all over India?
Ans :-From 2nd tenure of Robert Clive to the rule of Lord Dalhousie.
22. Who was Andrew Fraser?
Ans :- Andrew Fraser was the Chief Commissioner of Madhya Pradesh.
24. Who gave the proposal to Lord Curzon to change the geographical boundary of Madhya Pradesh and Bengal in 1901?
Ans :- Andrew Fraser gave the proposal to Lord Curzon.
25. When did Andrew Fraser give the proposal to Lord Curzon to change the geographical boundary of Madhya Pradesh and Bengal?
Ans :-In 1901.
26. To whom Fraser gave the proposal to change the geographical boundary of Madhya Pradesh and Bengal in 1901?
Ans :-To Lord Curzon.
27. What happened in Orissa in 1866 AD?
Ans :-Famine Broke-Out.
28. How many people lost their lives in famine-hit Orissa in 1866 A.D?
Ans :-Around 10,000 people lost their lives.
29. Who put the proposal of the partition of Bengal before the government of England?
Ans :-Viceroy Lord Northbrook.
30. Who proposed to disjoin. Orissa and Sambalpur from Bengal and to annex to Madhya Pradesh?
Ans :- Andrew Fraser.
31. Who proposed to annex Chattagram to Assam with a view to expand the tea business?
Ans :-J.Bamfylde Fuller.
32. When was the treaty of Yandabu signed?
Ans :-24th February 1826.
33. When was Cachar brought under the British empire in India?
Ans :-In 1832.
34. When was Khasi Hills brought under the British empire in India?
Ans :-In 1833.
35. When was Jaintia Hills brought under the British empire in India?
Ans :-In 1835.
36. When was the province of Motok and Sadiya brought under the British empire in India?
Ans :-In 1839.
37. When was the province of Khamti brought under the British empire in India?
Ans :-In 1843.
38. When was Singfoo brought under the British empire in India?
Ans :-In 1843.
39. When was the area of Angami Naga Hills brought under the British empire in India?
Ans :-In 1845.
40. Who was appointed Lt. Governor of Bengal in 1903?
Ans :- Andrew Fraser.
41. Who directed Andrew Fraser to make a plan for re-demarcation of the boundary of the Bengal province?
Ans :-Viceroy Lord Curzon.
42. When did Andrew Fraser submit his plan for re-demarcation of the boundary of the Bengal province to Lord Curzon?
Ans :-On 28th March 1903.
43. When did Lord Curzon prepare a detailed proposal of the partition of Bengal?
Ans :-On 1st June 1903.
44. Who was Herbert Risely?
Ans :-Herbert Risely was the Secretary of State Government of India.
45. Who put proposals to expand the boundary of Assam up to Chattagram?
Ans :-European Tea planters put the proposals.
46. Name the chief commissioner who, in his second tenure, put the proposal to annex Chattagram, two districts of Dhaka and Maimonsing to Assam.
Ans :-William E.Ward.
47. How much area was covered by the territories of Dhaka, Chattagram, and Rajshahi?
Ans :-These three territories were covered the area About 1,06,540 sq miles.
48. What was to be the capital of the proposed ‘Eastern Bengal and Assam’?
Ans :- Dhaka was the capital.
49. When did Lord Curzon send the proposal of the partition of Bengal to Indian Secretary-General in London for necessary approval?
Ans:- On 2nd February 1905.
50. Who approved Lord Curzon’s proposed of the partition of Bengal and informed the government of India by telegram message?
Ans:- John Brodic.
51. When did the British Government publish Lord Curzon’s proposal of the partition of Bengal?
Ans:- 1st September 1905.
52. When was declared officially that the partition of Bengal would be implemented on 16th October?
Ans:- 1st September 1905.
53. On which date in 1905 did the partition of Bengal comes into force?
Ans:- 16th OCT 1905.
54. Name the article published in the journal Sanjibani created the great sensation among the people.
Ans:- ”Bangar Sabanash”.
55. Who was editor of the journal Sanjibani?
Ans:- Krishna Kumar Mitra.
56. Where was the first protest meeting held against the proposed partition of Bengal?
Ans:- Khulna (Bagarbari).
57. Name the college whose students for the first time staged a walkout from their classrooms and took part in the movement against the partition of Bengal.
Ans:- The Students of Ripon College (Surendranath College).
58. What was the patriotic song that the students recited by calling for boycotting foreign goods?
Ans:- The patriotic song of Mukunda Das,”Hey Banga Janani, Swarna Prasabini……”.
59. When did the people of Bengal observe ‘National mourning day?
Ans:-16th OCT 1905.
60. At whose proposal, did every household in Bengal avoid cooking on 16th October 1905?
Ans:- Ramendra Sundar Trivedi.
61. What was observed on 16th October 1905 by the people of Bengal at the call of Rabindranath Tagore?
Ans:- Rakhi Bandhan.
62. Who laid the foundation stone of ‘Federal Hall’ as the symbol of unit and heritage of Bengal?
Ans:-Ananda Mohan Bose.
63. Who edited the ‘Bengali’ (1904)?
Ans:- Surendranath Banerjee.
- Who edited the ‘Sanjibani’ (1906)?
Ans:- Krishna Kumar Mitra.
- Who edited the ‘Sandhya’ (1906)?
Ans:- Brahmabandhab Upadhyay.
- Name a play written on the background of Swadeshi movement.
Ans:- “Palashir Praychitta”.
- Who wrote the play, ‘Sirajuddoula’?
Ans:- Girish Ghose.
- Name a book that was written on the background of Swadeshi movement.
Ans:- ‘Joy Sangeet’by Pramathnath Ray Choudhury.
- How many patriotic songs composed by Rabindranath Tagore on Swadeshi movement?
Ans:-23 numbers of patriotic songs.
- Name the song which won the status of the national anthem of independent Bangladesh.
Ans:- “Aamar Sonar Bangla, Ami tomay Vlaobashi……”.
- Who wrote the national anthem of independent Bangladesh?
Ans:- Rabindranath Tagore.
- Who was the editor of the journal Jugaantar published in the time of Swadeshi movement?
Ans:- Bhupendra Dutta.
- Under whose presidentship, a vast student rally was organized at Pataldanga Mallikbari in 4th Nov 1905?
Ans:- Rabindranath Tagore.
- Who named the University of Calcutta as the house of slaves during the Swadeshi movement?
Ans:- Satish Chandra Mukherjee, The editor of ‘The Dawn’.
- When was the institution named the National Education Council (Jatiya Siksha Parishad) established in Bengal?
Ans:- 11th March 1906.
- Under whose leadership, the National Education Council (Jatiya Siksha Parisad) was formed on 11th March 1906?
Ans:- Rasbihari Bose.
- When was Bengal National College established?
Ans:- 15th AUG 1906.
- Who was the first principal of Bengal National College?
Ans:- Arabinda Ghose
- How many secondary schools were established during the Swadeshi movement?
Ans:- 62 Secondary Schools and 3000 Primary Schools.
- Under whose financial help, was Bengal Technical Institute established?
Ans:- Reputed Brriester Taraknath Palit.
- Name a prominent female leader of Swadeshi movement.
Ans:- Sarala Devi Choudhurini.
- Who edited the magazine ‘Bharti’?
Ans:- Sarala Devi Choudhurini.
- What was the real name of Sister Nibedita?
Ans:- Margaret Elizabeth Noble.
- Name the reputed textile farm established by Rabindranath Tagore.
Ans:- Swadeshi Bhandar.
- Who was the main introducer of the industry named Bengal Chemicals?
Ans:- Acharya Prafulla Chandra Roy.
- Who established an iron factory in 1907?
Ans:- Jamshedji Tata.
- When was the first Indian industrial summit held?
Ans:- 17th DEC 1905.
- Where was the first Indian industrial summit held?
Ans:- At Varanashi.
- Under whose chairmanship was the first Indian industrial summit held in 17th Decamber 1905?
Ans:- R.C. Dutta.
- Who became the Viceroy of India after Lord Curzon?
Ans:- Lord Minto.
- When was all India Muslim League established?
Ans:- 30th DEC 1906.
- Under whose presidenship did the Conference of Indian National Congress accept the proposal of swaraj for Indians?
Ans:- Dadabhai Noraji.
- In which Viceroy’s time did the partition of Bengal take place?
Ans:- Lord Curzon.
Short / Long Answer type Questions :-
1. Mention three main geographical regions of Bengal which were annexed to the Province of East Bengal and Assam created after the Partition of Bengal.(2/3 marks)
Ans:- Rajshahi, Dhaka and Chattagram were three main geographical regions of Bengal which were annexed to the Province of East Bengal and Assam by Lord Curzon, Viceroy of the British Government.
2.Write briefly about what were the intentions of the partition plan of Bengal. (4/5 marks)
Ans:-The main intentions or objectives of the partition plan of Bengal led by the British Government were :-
i. To stop the increasing tide of Nationalism which was fast emerging in the province of Bengal.
ii. To break the Hindu-Muslim unity which would uproot the stability of the British Empire.
iii.To break the province of Bengal in such a way that the Muslims could become minority in the retained province while Muslim could become minority in the retained province while the Hindus would become minority as well , in the newly created province.
iv.To destroy any chances of both the groups joining together and fight against the govt. The Britishers pleased the muslim leaders to weaken the Hindu-Bengalis who were in fore-front of the National Movement.
v.To diminish the growth of anti British extemists within the congress Party.
3.Why was the anti-partition of Bengal movement named as Swadeshi Movement ? Discuss briefly(4/5 marks)
Ans:-The British authorities proposed the partition of Bengal on 6th Dec 1903.As a reaction to the partition ,a huge public protest and dissatisfaction against the British Rulers started emerging ,People irrespective of all caste, creed,religion including Bengal Leaders like Surendra Nath Banarjee, Bipin Chandra Pal, Arabindo Ghoshe etc.joined the movement .They felt that the move was an attempt to break the Hindu-Muslim unity which existed in the province.They started signature collecting campaign to create strong public opinion and awarness among the people.They submitted 70,000 protest papers to the Secretary General,but the British govt. remained upcompromising.The people then rose up unitedly against this plan of the British by launching massive public protest in Bengal.After realizing the great potential of this mass movement.This movement became famous as Swadeshi Movement because it was publicly recommanded that the Indians would unitedly boycot foriegn goods and school using homemade goods made by the Indians .
The movement was publicly called to renounce and boycott foriegn goods entirely and takeup the handmade Indian goods.Students were asked to leave the govt. Institutions and join the national institutions set up by Indian Patriotic Leaders.Thus, this phrase(1905-1911) of the movement against the British in India came to be known as Swadeshi Movement.
4.Discuss the contributions of Swadeshi Movement towards national education.(4/5 marks)
Ans:-The Swadeshi Movement had an extreme impact on the National Education prevalent of that time.The biggest contribution of the Swadeshi Movement was the creation of awarness among the the students about nationality and patroitism.The result was the disobidience of a govt. order circulated by R.W Carlyle on 10 Oct 1905,warming the student not to join the movement against the govt. .The Student Community made a strong protest and observed a walked out of the classroom as a mark to protest.On 4th November 1905,Rabindranath Tagore organised a vast student rally at Pataldanga ,Mallikbari against the unjustified circular of the govt. .Prominent Leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal,Rabindranath Tagore,Abdul Rasid etc.called upon the Students to come away from the govt. institutions.Satish Ch. Mukherjee started a national institutions name ‘Dawn Society’.This society expressed its displeasure over Lord Curzon’s University Law on 1904 and Carlyle’s circular on 1905. On 8 november 1905,Rabindranath Tagore established a set of educational institutions named ‘Banga Jatiya Vidyalaya’ in Calcutta and at Rangpur .
Following Rabindranath Tagore’s example many eminent personalities set up different schools all over Bengal.Under the leadership of Rashbihari Bose,The Jatiya Siksha Parishad was formed on 11th march 1905 at town hall Calcutta,Bengal National College was established o 15th August 1906.In these manner over 62 secondary schools and 3000 primary schools were established .Eventually several other institution were formed as the major contribution of Swadeshi Movement towards National Education.
5.How did the national industry develop Swadeshi Movement ? Explain in Short. (4/5 marks)
Ans:- The Swadeshi Movement led the spirit of self development of Indian industries. As foriegn goods were rejected , people now turned into laege number of indegenious industries of locally made goods , which came up in differrent parts of the country. Spinning machines,handloom industries,industries for producing soap, sugar, etc. were established. Along with industries ,national banks and national insurance companies came into existance.The Banga Lakshmi Mill and Mohini Mill,the two textile mill of the Swadeshi era met the demands of Swadeshi cloths in Bengal.The Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical company was set up under the initiative of Acharya Prafulla Ch. Roy.Nilratan Sarkar established Banga Lakhi Cotton Mill.Jamshedji Tata established the iron factory.Bihari sen jointly established Indian Stores at Bou Bazar Calcutta for the sale of swadeshi goods ,many swadeshi stores were set up in villages and town.As the demand for swadeshi articles increased the Dawn society and the Anti circular society undertook responsibility to supply these articles door to door at cost price.Sarala Devi set up ‘Lakshmi Bhandar’ at Cornwallis Street in Calcutta taking inspiration from these event the first Indian Industrial Summit was held at Varanasi under the Chairmanship of R.C.Dutta.The Summit created awarness among the Indian people about the prospects of the indegeneous industries.It was the firstera of Indian history where the progress of industries and bussiness of Modern India took place.
6.What were the anti movement measures taken by the British to dominate Swadeshi Movement?
Ans:-The British took several measures to dominate Swadeshi Movement.Lord Curzon offered the moderate group of congreee leaders various tittles post ,medals etc. .The post of Judges in High Court membership in british parliament etc. for obtaining support towards the partition of Bengal .The Congress Leaders suchas Gopal Krishna Gokhale ,Bipin Ch. Pal etc. .However stood firm and return the tittles post honours offered by the govt. .Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the first to return the ‘Knighthood’ tittle to the British.(The British tried to please the Muslim leaders to them away from the Indian Natoinal Congress.They encouraged them to start a Muslim Political Party to oppose the moves the moves of the Indian National Congress.To a great extend,they encoraged in this move.) Inspite of all his policies Lord Curzon failed to control the anti partition movement.
7.Mention three result of Swadeshi Movemovent.(marks-3/4/5)
Ans:-The three result of Swadeshi Movemovent were:-
i) Rise of National Industry :-The Swadeshi Movemovent for the first time unified the people in a glorious manner as a whole.The agenda of boycotting foriegn goods considerably reduced the import of it and increasing the acceptance of the self made local products.
ii)Development of National Literature:-many magazines ,newspapers,books,drama,songs and articles encouraging the sprit of nationalism and patroitism were published during this period.Under the leadership of Abanindranath Thakur .The Indian Fine Arts foundation was created from the western influnce .
iii)Establishment of Muslim League:-The British tried to divide the Indians on the basis of religion,caste etc. .So that their imperialism would remain intact.After recieving special political gains from the British,the Muslims were encouraged to form a political organisation called all Indian Muslim League.This league because a big force as it weakened the success of the Indian National Congress.
8.Mention three contribution of Swadeshi Movemovent.(marks-3/4/5).
Ans:-The major contribution of Swadeshi Movemovent are:-
i)Gave awarness about mass movement:-Indian became politically aware of the of the power of mass movement.The realised if the people stood united in a majority for a good cause , the mass movement would eventually bring success.
ii)Attracted women towards mass movement:- Indians women were empowered by theb Swadeshi Movement.Each person in Bengal fasted on the day when Prafulla Chaki was executed. Thousand of women participated in a mass agitation in the protest against theb police on Bhupendra Nath Dutta, son of Bhubanisan Devi.
iii)Aronsed demand for Swaraj:- The sense of nationalism stirred Swadeshi movement aroused the passion for ‘Swaraj’ which means self governance.This demand was raised during the Congress Sessional at Calcutta in 1906 under the Presedentship of Dadabhai Naoroji,thtough which the Indians got the privilege to demand for the Swaraj through the Swadeshi Movement.
9.Write briefly about what were intentions of the partition of Bengal.(marks-4/5)
Ans:-The main hidden purpose behind the partition of Bengal was to becimate or break thre Hindu-Muslim Unity.The capital of Easttern Bengal and Assam was to be Dhaka.This proposed state had population of around 3.10 crores.Among this Muslim population was 1.8 crores and Hindus were 1.2 lacs.On the other hand Calcutta was to be the capital of proposed ‘Bengal Province’ and it had a population of around 5.4 crores .Among these Hindus were 4.2 crores and Muslim were just 90 thousands.But in comparism to the people of Bihar and Orissa,the Bengalis were minority Lord Curzon proposed to make the terittory of Bengal smaller and the territory of Assam bigger for a smooth administration but the hidden agenda behind it also came on the surface. Herbert Risley’s letter to Lord Curzon mentioned,”The United Bengal in a big force ,the partition will destroy this big unity.”.Since Bengal was considered to be the centre of Indian Nationalism the real motive of Lord Curzon was to strengthen British empire in India by weakening the political concoins Hindu-Bengalis and thus to rasist the growth of India nationalism.To meet these vested interest communal feelings were needed to spread.
Write short notes:-
i)Kabiguru Rabindranath Tagore:-
Ans:-Rabindranath Tagore is one of the finest personalities ever produced by Bengal for out country.He was a famous lyricist,dramatist,poet,story-writer,painter,educationalist,philosopher and a revolutionary leader.His collection of 23 patriotic songs,writter and song on Swadeshi Movement will remain a treasure of Indian Culture.The songs,’Amar Sonar Banglav Ami Tomake Bhalobashi’ won the status of National Anthem of Independent Bangladesh.The songs ,’Jodi Tor Daak Shune Kew Naa ashe,Tobe Ekla Chalo Re…..’,recieved everlasting popularity.His article ‘Bhai Bhai Ek Thai’ boosted the spirit of Swadeshi Movement.Through his inspiring speech he called the people for maintaining Social Harmony.To stop buying and selling of British goods,the students decided to continue picketing programme in the business institutions.Rabindranath Tagore turned 16th October 1905,the day of partition of Bengal was implemented, into a day of Rakhibandhan on the strengthen the Hindu-Muslim Unity.He encouraged people to tie Rakhi on hands of Muslim asa mark of brotherhood.He was associated with the establishment of the series of national education and institution named ‘Banga Jatiya Vidyalas’ during this period .He also encouraged the devolopment of local industries and started in this context a stop named ‘Swadesh Bhandar’ which over years became a reputed Indian textile firm in Calcutta.His calbre performed tremendous affect in history of Indian Freedom.
ii)Margaret Elizabeth Nobel
Ans:-Margaret Elizabeth Nobel (1864-1911),known as Sister Nibedita was an Irish Lady.During the period of Swadeshi Movement she is considered to be the best known woman national leader from Bengal .She was a prominent woman who contributed a lot in creating national awarness among the youths.During her stay in Calcutta she was actively associated with Youngman’s Hindu Union,Vivekananda Society, Dawn Society and Anumilan Sammitee and encouraged the youths and the women folk to be independent by involvement in indegenous industries. The bravery of the Bengal women stunned the British Rulers.Regarding the courage of Bengal women, The daily Telegraph,London on 11th October 1907 wrote – The Bengal women are the most obstinate and most dangerous antagonist of the English.It is in this backdrop that sister Nibedita is reckoned as an immortal figure of the national movement in our country.
iii) Nawab Salimullah
Ans:- Nawab Salimullah khan is considered to be the founder of muslim League.He formed the Muslim League in 1906 to protect the Muslim interests in the country.
He was the Nawab of a small area near Dhaka on 18th Feb,1904,he organised a big rally in Dhaka and called the Islamic people for standing unitedly against the Hindus.Lord Curzon lent 14 lacs to Nawab with minimum interests for this purpose.With the back of Curzon he promised the Muslim land lords to provide special facilities.It was Salimullah who organised the meeting of Muslim leaders on 30th dec 1906 in Dhaka and created the Muslim League presided by Nawab Bikor-Ul-Mulook.He led the declaration of the aims and objectives of this newly formed political organisation on that day itself. Nawab Salimullah declared Muslim loyally to the British and thus weakened the Indian National Congress .After the demise of Salimullah ,the conservative character of the Muslim league saw many changes.